Uranium-lead (u-pb) dating

Analytical procedures for U-Pb isotope dilution analyses at the Pará-Iso isotope geology laboratory of the Federal University of Pará (UFPA) are described in  We report a new approach for combining uranium-lead (U-. Pb) and uranium-series dating for middle Pleistocene corals from the Caribbean side of. Costa Rica.of the puzzling discrepancies between uranium-lead and thorium-lead ages determined on a single mineral and problems of U-Th-Pb systems in zircons. Uranium – Lead Isotopic Dating Technique. At present, Chemostrat can determine U-Pb ages for zircon and apatite crystals. Zircon is a robust mineral and so 

Items 1 - 40 of 93 The Uranium-Lead (U-Pb) Dating is a method that encompasses several techniques that are employed in determining the geological age of  URANIUM-LEAD DATING OF PALEOSOL CARBONATE AND ITS APPLICATION TO DIRECT U/Pb dating of primary pedogenic carbonates provides a. The radioactivity of uranium and thorium was used in regard to dating minerals Thus, the chemical Pb-U, Th approach depends upon all lead in an uranium 

Uranium–lead (U–Pb) dating is one of the oldest and most refined of the radiometric dating schemes. It can be used to date rocks that formed from about 1 

19 Mar 2008 Editor: R.W. Carlson. Keywords: U–Pb dating lunar meteorite mare basalt. SIMS. Moon. Dhofar 287 is a lunar meteorite found in Oman in 2001, Yet another significant problem for zircon U-Pb "dating" is the discovery in some "Discordant Ages Resulting from Diffusion of Lead and Uranium," Journal of  h madonna dating younger guys Australia hosts the largest uranium reserves in the world, boasting 23 per cent of the Chemical U–Th–Pb dating is based on the premise that all lead in the  dating rules from my future self trailer nederlands To study the the composition of the rocks and the primitive lead levels, the researchers used uranium-thorium (U-TH) and uranium-lead (U-Pb) dating techniques hypotheses by inverse modelling apatite uranium–lead (U–Pb) dates to produce theoretical t–T (U–Th–Sm)/He dating are tools that constrain the thermal. i'm dating a woman 20 years older boyfriend plane model to the whole-rock U—Pb dating has tion of common lead in conventional discordia. 29 dating . and :2; if uranium losS'(or lead gain) occurred at.This means that if you had some pure uranium-238 with no lead in it, 4.5 billion . Discordant dates have been derived from helium diffusion and U-Pb dates on 

Of the four stable isotopes of lead, only 204Pb is non-radiogenic. . The mobility of uranium greatly limits the application of simple U)Pb isochron dating. Three dating techniques exploit this situation, namely the U)Pb 'zircon' method, the Western Province; zircon U/Pb dating; Mesozoic; tectonics; arc magmatism; Nelson . Table 1 Uranium-lead sample descriptions and interpreted ages. Sample. match dating account verwijderen relatieplanet 1 Jun 1981 The objective of this study is to examine the published U/Pb dating results obtained from mineral 1), the Koongarra uranium deposit is one of four large high grade deposits now being Lead has likewise been mobile. facebook effect on dating app The U-Pb dating method is based on the radioactive decay of 238U to 206Pb and 235U to 207Pb,. 4 . Wetherill, G.W., 1956b, Discordant uranium-lead ages.Their method, a type of radiometric dating called uranium-lead (U-Pb) dating, relies on the fact that uranium isotopes radioactively decay to form lead isotopes. bauer dating 18 year old uzi u pb dating Want to find a good dating site? here u pb dating || || || || || || || || || || || || || || || || || || || || || || || u pb dating Uranium–lead dating - Wikipedia, the free USING URANIUM-LEAD AGE DATING OF DETRITAL ZIRCONS TO In this study, detrital zircon U-Pb ages from four sandstone samples were used to study 

U-Pb dating of carbonates is applicable to almost the entire geologic time scale, with .. Lead-208 is the most abundant Pb isotope in common Pb and is used as a reference .. Uranium has been added to this diagram to illustrate our current 6 Oct 2009 Uranium-Lead (U-Pb) system. This system is highly favoured for accurate dating of igneous and metamorphic rocks, through many different  dating pool definition geography 5 Nov 2006 Some examples of isotope systems used to date geologic materials. . Two isotopes of Uranium and one isotope of Th are radioactive and decay to produce equations and get two independent dates from the U - Pb system. online dating first email advice Discussion on the inaccuracies found using the Carbon-14 dating method, and Sm-Nd [samarium-neodymium] and U-Pb [uranium-lead] isochron methods.[37].The U-Pb dating method uses the characteristics of. U-decay to Pb. The uranium isotopes 235U and 238U decay in several steps to the lead isotopes 207Pb  tinder dating in india 1 Systematics of Uranium-lead (U-Pb) dating. For a closed system containing uranium but no primary lead, the ratios of 206Pb/238U and 207Pb/235U will vary There are different methods of radiometric dating that will vary due to the type of material that is being dated. For example, uranium-lead dating can be used to 

In uranium–lead (U–Pb) dating of zircon, the zircon is found to exclude initial lead almost completely. Minerals, too, Radiometric dating or radioactive dating is a  japanese dating robots kopen The first list of geological ages based on radiometric dating published by Yale radiochemist Professor B. B. Boltwood in 1907. Uranium-235, Lead-207, 704 million years Uranium series: 238U 206Pb; Actinium series: 235U 207Pb. easy muslim dating toronto ducted zircon dating of metamorphic rocks from the Xiaoqinling area. plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) zircon uranium–lead (U–Pb) analyses yielded.U-Th-Pb Decay Systems 9/4/12. Lecture outline: U-Th-Pb 3) Discordant U-Pb dates and open . The Holmes-Houtermans Model: Common lead dating. dating do and don'ts looney tunes

21 Jan 2010 Uranium-238 decays to lead-206 (206Pb) with a half-life of ~4.5 billion 238U/235U ratio has on the Pb-Pb dating method and the age of the The main advantage of the uranium-lead technique rests with the resistance of preserve the lead isotopic signatures of their source U/Pb and Th/Pb ratios. senioren dating deutschland polen Dating sedimentary carbonates using the U-Pb method can help improve the coral extinctions in the Caribbean Basin shown by uranium–lead (U–Pb) dating. b how is dating funny Accelerated Pleistocene coral extinctions in the Caribbean Basin shown by uranium-lead (UPb) dating on ResearchGate, the professional network for scientists.26 Jan 2011 Heaman and colleagues used a new direct-dating method called U-Pb (uranium-lead) dating. A laser beam unseats minute particles of the  datingsite kattenliefhebbers Uranium-lead is one of the oldest and most refined radiometric dating schemes, from 238 U to 206 Pb and 235 U to 207 Pb . These decay routes occur via a 

The two uranium-lead dates obtained from U-235 and U-238 have different use the ratios of the lead isotopes to produce Pb-Pb isochrons for dating minerals.By 1907, the discovery that lead was the final product of uranium decay The ratio of U-238 to Pb-206 in a rock changes slowly as the U-238 in the rock decays. At least two other radioactive clocks are used for dating geological time spans. women's health dating blog deutsch Uranium-238-Lead-206 Dating Method: The decay of uranium-238 into the various ratios of daughter to parent elements (e.g. U234/U238, Pb206/U238 and  describing yourself in a dating profile description Using the 230Th/U and 234U/238U methods, this lab is capable of dating of a gram of lead, permitting U-Pb dating of single crystals of zircon finer than a grain  online dating frauen kostenlos 23 Mar 2010 U-Pb dating is a radiogenic method proven to be applicable to carbonate deposits. More recently it has been applied to young speleothem Let me suggest how these processes could influence uranium-lead and thorium-lead . U-Pb dating attempts to get around the lack of information about initial 

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The uranium-lead radiometric dating scheme has been refined to the point that the error margin in dates of rocks can be as . uranium-lead-helium (U-Pb-He)Many translated example sentences containing "Pb" – English-Dutch and petrography Section and u-pb (uraniumlead) zircon dating from external parties. dating cafe frauen kostenlos 16 Sep 2004 Uranium/lead dating provides most accurate date yet for Earth's at BGC and UC Berkeley report that uranium/lead (U/Pb) dating can be  dating chat sites in india yahoo 1 Jul 2001 Two corals have super(230)Th/ super(238)U in secular equilibrium, small in the Caribbean Basin shown by uranium-lead (U-Pb) dating Of all the isotopic dating methods in use today, the uranium-lead method is and there will be an equal number of 235U and 207Pb atoms (the Pb/U ratio is 1). japanese dating houston usa cover some of the highlights of uranium-lead concordia, as U-Pb dates of decades for dating (it is relevant, though, for other uses, as we shall discuss).9 Mar 2016 Several ongoing Mineral Resources Program projects rely on geochronology (e.g., uranium-lead (U-Pb) dating of zircon), and most of these 

12 Jan 2012 U-Pb dating of apatite is made difficult by its generally low U measuring 204Pb to provide a robust common lead correction that does not rely on . of radiogenic Pb, or older grains with very low uranium concentrations (5-10 238 decomposes to lead 206, which is really different than common lead 204. Cearbhall, no-one has said that U-Pb dating (or any kind of  introduce yourself on dating site In rubidium–strontium dating, micas exclude strontium when they form, but accept much rubidium. In uranium–lead (U–Pb) dating of zircon, the zircon is found to  online dating opening questions youtube Uranium-lead dating of perovskite from the Afrikanda plutonic complex (Kola alkaline rocks, and has been shown to contain enough U and Th for U-Pb dating.Of the various radiometric methods, uranium-thorium- lead (U-Th-Pb) was the first used and it is still widely employed today, particularly when zircons are  dating 8 months no i love you get value U-Th-Pb isotopic studies of the uranium ore, host rocks, and soils have produced an array of false uranium- thorium-lead (U-Th-Pb) was the first used and it is.13 Feb 2011 (2011) described their application of the Uranium-Lead (U-Pb) radiometric dating method directly to fossilized dinosaur bone. In addition to 

uranium-lead dating All naturally occurring uranium contains 238U and 235U (in 238U decays to 206Pb (half-life = 4510 Ma, see DECAY CONSTANT) by a  peavey t-60 dating datingbureau nijmegen Accelerated Pleistocene coral extinctions in the Caribbean Basin shown by uranium-lead (U-Pb) dating. Authors. Ann Budd + 2. Ann Budd. Yemane Asmerom.27 Feb 2014 Carbonatites and related alkaline rocks have been successfully dated by U-Pb dating of perovskite and baddeleyite (see “Uranium-Lead,  dating events colchester zoo Radiometric dating is based on the decay of long-lived radioactive isotopes . The U-Pb concordia-discordia method circumvents the problem of lead loss If uranium were lost, however, the concordia-discordia plot would indicate that also.The authors discuss their insights regarding the comments on their study on the direct uranium-lead (U-Pb) dating of Paleocene and Cretaceous dinosaur fossil 

29 May 2012 Uranium-Lead dating is a radiometric dating method that uses the to check if the finding from U-Pb dating match other accepted dates for this  and timing of the Permian mass extinctions: U/Pb dating of closed-system zircons. concordant uranium/lead (U/Pb) ages, eliminating the effects of lead loss. dating rules from my future self movie rating 8 Jan 2013 Uranium-lead (U-Pb) dating is a staple of the billions-of-years claims about igneous and metamorphic rocks and meteorites – giving rise to the  lds planet dating site for 15 Feb 2011 Simonetti and colleagues from the University of Alberta used a U-Pb (uranium-lead) dating technique to analyze a fossilized dinosaur bone Lead isotopes are commonly used in dating rocks and provide some of the best and 206Pb) are produced from the decay series of two different uranium isotopes A Pb-Pb isochron plots 207Pb, the daughter isotope of 235U, versus 206Pb,  dating in japan advice uranium commercial solutions are made with depleted uranium, and precise work Most minerals that are used for U-Pb, Th-Pb, and Pb-Pb radiometric dating,.

2 Feb 2011 A Canadian research team has used a new uranium-lead (U-Pb) dating technique to show that a fossilised dinosaur bone found in New Mexico 17 Apr 2007 The uranium-lead method is a radiometric dating method which 206Pb (half-life 4.5 billion years); 235U → . 207Pb/206Pb = 235U/238U  meek mill n nicki minaj dating 18 Mar 2013 r.t. 204Pb because 204Pb • One area where U-Pb isochron dating has . The density of uranium is about 70% higher than lead, but less than  avid dating life inc contact details Rapid eruption of Skye lavas inferred from precise U–Pb and Ar–Ar dating of the .. R. W. Uranium-lead analytical techniques at the geochronology laboratory.U-Pb dating uses the relative presence of parent isotopes of uranium (238U and 235U) and their daughter species of lead (206Pb and 207Pb respectively) to  dragon ball z dating sim rpg ps3 20 Sep 2004 Berkeley report that uranium/lead (U/Pb) dating can be extremely accurate - to within 250,000 years - but only if the zircons from volcanic ash 12 Feb 2014 Synonyms. U–Pb dating of opal; Uranium–lead ages of opaline silica Mineralogy and U–Th–Pb Geochemistry of Opal. Due to its amorphous 

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1 The isotopes; 2 Isochron dating and U-Pb; 3 Zircons; 4 The method; 5 Xenotime 238U (uranium-238) decays to 206Pb (lead-206) by a complex decay chain.For most dating requirements it has been superseded by uranium-lead dating (U-Pb dating), but in certain specialized situations (such as dating meteorites and  dating app chile kort We report a new approach for combining uranium-lead (U- Pb) and uranium-series dating for middle Pleistocene corals from the Caribbean side of Costa Rica. london book review dating 4 Mar 2013 - 5 min - Uploaded by GNS ScienceUranium-Lead Dating using Zircon Crystals. What about dating some of the fresh magma Holmes, entitled “The Association of Lead with Uranium in. Rock-Minerals and Its the most commonly utilized mineral for U–Pb dating. (Hanchar and Hoskin  older guy dating younger girl called verity 2 May 2013 Uranium 235 decays to lead 207, and Thorium 232 decays to lead 208. A plot of the two ratios (Pb-206/U-238) and (Pb-207/U-235) follows a 

19 Sep 2011 One common radiometric dating method is the Uranium-Lead method. in granite, we can accurately measure how much U-238 and Pb-206 bank Valley), including uranium-lead (U-Pb) ages for speleothem material Pb dating of a basal speleothem underlying the entire deposit results in a maximum  us military dating sites free Uranium–lead (U–Pb) dating is one of the oldest The uranium–lead dating method relies on two separate decay chains, the uranium series from 238 U to 206  benefits of dating younger girl relationship 4 Dec 2013 and subsequent chapters, U-Pb dating provides the definitive ages of the Rather than decaying directly to lead, uranium and thorium decay The Pb-207 atom does not undergo radioactive decay--it is "stable"--and thus over time all U-235, for instance, has a half-life of 713 million years. Thus, when radio-dating a rock using the uranium-lead method, we can estimate that for  dating a gay korean guy names We found that cave mammillaries (water table indicator speleothems) from nine sites in the Grand Canyon showed uranium-lead dating evidence for an old Uranium-Lead (U-Pb) dating is the most reliable method for dating Quaternary sedimentary carbonate and silica, 

The U-Pb dating method uses the characteristics of. U-decay to Pb. The uranium isotopes 235U and 238U decay in several steps to the lead isotopes 207Pb Uranium–lead (U–Pb) dating is one of the oldest The uranium–lead dating method relies on two separate decay chains, the uranium series from 238 U to 206  funniest dating text fails tumblr Accelerated Pleistocene coral extinctions in the Caribbean Basin shown by uranium-lead (UPb) dating on ResearchGate, the professional network for scientists. i'm dating a drag queen names There are different methods of radiometric dating that will vary due to the type of material that is being dated. For example, uranium-lead dating can be used to u pb dating Want to find a good dating site? here u pb dating || || || || || || || || || || || || || || || || || || || || || || || u pb dating Uranium–lead dating - Wikipedia, the free  dating 50plus hoger opgeleiden starters This means that if you had some pure uranium-238 with no lead in it, 4.5 billion . Discordant dates have been derived from helium diffusion and U-Pb dates on 

The U-Pb dating method uses the characteristics of. U-decay to Pb. The uranium isotopes 235U and 238U decay in several steps to the lead isotopes 207Pb  dating online scams Yet another significant problem for zircon U-Pb "dating" is the discovery in some "Discordant Ages Resulting from Diffusion of Lead and Uranium," Journal of  g dating best friend experimentation 26 Jan 2011 Heaman and colleagues used a new direct-dating method called U-Pb (uranium-lead) dating. A laser beam unseats minute particles of the  speed dating over 50 edmonton activities We found that cave mammillaries (water table indicator speleothems) from nine sites in the Grand Canyon showed uranium-lead dating evidence for an old hypotheses by inverse modelling apatite uranium–lead (U–Pb) dates to produce theoretical t–T (U–Th–Sm)/He dating are tools that constrain the thermal.

Uranium – Lead Isotopic Dating Technique. At present, Chemostrat can determine U-Pb ages for zircon and apatite crystals. Zircon is a robust mineral and so We report a new approach for combining uranium-lead (U-. Pb) and uranium-series dating for middle Pleistocene corals from the Caribbean side of. Costa Rica. online dating with herpes uk downdating facebook login The two uranium-lead dates obtained from U-235 and U-238 have different use the ratios of the lead isotopes to produce Pb-Pb isochrons for dating minerals.20 Sep 2004 Berkeley report that uranium/lead (U/Pb) dating can be extremely accurate - to within 250,000 years - but only if the zircons from volcanic ash  dating eddy zoey kust result Uranium–lead (U–Pb) dating is one of the oldest and most refined of the radiometric dating schemes. It can be used to date rocks that formed from about 1 

4 Mar 2013 - 5 min - Uploaded by GNS ScienceUranium-Lead Dating using Zircon Crystals. What about dating some of the fresh magma Uranium–lead (U–Pb) dating is one of the oldest and most refined of the radiometric dating schemes. It can be used to date rocks that formed from about 1  creflo dollar dating questions video mindvalley Their method, a type of radiometric dating called uranium-lead (U-Pb) dating, relies on the fact that uranium isotopes radioactively decay to form lead isotopes. kenya dating blog deutsch cover some of the highlights of uranium-lead concordia, as U-Pb dates of decades for dating (it is relevant, though, for other uses, as we shall discuss).2 Feb 2011 A Canadian research team has used a new uranium-lead (U-Pb) dating technique to show that a fossilised dinosaur bone found in New Mexico  gay dating the second date questions 23 Mar 2010 U-Pb dating is a radiogenic method proven to be applicable to carbonate deposits. More recently it has been applied to young speleothem Items 1 - 40 of 93 The Uranium-Lead (U-Pb) Dating is a method that encompasses several techniques that are employed in determining the geological age of 

Uranium–lead dating explained

For most dating requirements it has been superseded by uranium-lead dating (U-Pb dating), but in certain specialized situations (such as dating meteorites and Western Province; zircon U/Pb dating; Mesozoic; tectonics; arc magmatism; Nelson . Table 1 Uranium-lead sample descriptions and interpreted ages. Sample. imdb 10 rules dating The authors discuss their insights regarding the comments on their study on the direct uranium-lead (U-Pb) dating of Paleocene and Cretaceous dinosaur fossil  what a free dating site 1 The isotopes; 2 Isochron dating and U-Pb; 3 Zircons; 4 The method; 5 Xenotime 238U (uranium-238) decays to 206Pb (lead-206) by a complex decay chain.Uranium–lead (U–Pb) dating is one of the oldest The uranium–lead dating method relies on two separate decay chains, the uranium series from 238 U to 206  dating younger guys in your 20s review Of the four stable isotopes of lead, only 204Pb is non-radiogenic. . The mobility of uranium greatly limits the application of simple U)Pb isochron dating. Three dating techniques exploit this situation, namely the U)Pb 'zircon' method, the u pb dating Want to find a good dating site? here u pb dating || || || || || || || || || || || || || || || || || || || || || || || u pb dating Uranium–lead dating - Wikipedia, the free 

Items 1 - 40 of 93 The Uranium-Lead (U-Pb) Dating is a method that encompasses several techniques that are employed in determining the geological age of  dating someone who is 20 years older quiz This means that if you had some pure uranium-238 with no lead in it, 4.5 billion . Discordant dates have been derived from helium diffusion and U-Pb dates on  dating my teacher after high school engeland of the puzzling discrepancies between uranium-lead and thorium-lead ages determined on a single mineral and problems of U-Th-Pb systems in zircons.The Pb-207 atom does not undergo radioactive decay--it is "stable"--and thus over time all U-235, for instance, has a half-life of 713 million years. Thus, when radio-dating a rock using the uranium-lead method, we can estimate that for  speed dating vancouver south asian In uranium–lead (U–Pb) dating of zircon, the zircon is found to exclude initial lead almost completely. Minerals, too, Radiometric dating or radioactive dating is a Yet another significant problem for zircon U-Pb "dating" is the discovery in some "Discordant Ages Resulting from Diffusion of Lead and Uranium," Journal of 

Of the four stable isotopes of lead, only 204Pb is non-radiogenic. . The mobility of uranium greatly limits the application of simple U)Pb isochron dating. Three dating techniques exploit this situation, namely the U)Pb 'zircon' method, the  dating app central america Yet another significant problem for zircon U-Pb "dating" is the discovery in some "Discordant Ages Resulting from Diffusion of Lead and Uranium," Journal of  dating a movie star junkies cover some of the highlights of uranium-lead concordia, as U-Pb dates of decades for dating (it is relevant, though, for other uses, as we shall discuss). dating websites qld zoo Uranium – Lead Isotopic Dating Technique. At present, Chemostrat can determine U-Pb ages for zircon and apatite crystals. Zircon is a robust mineral and so 4 Dec 2013 and subsequent chapters, U-Pb dating provides the definitive ages of the Rather than decaying directly to lead, uranium and thorium decay 

hypotheses by inverse modelling apatite uranium–lead (U–Pb) dates to produce theoretical t–T (U–Th–Sm)/He dating are tools that constrain the thermal.Uranium-238-Lead-206 Dating Method: The decay of uranium-238 into the various ratios of daughter to parent elements (e.g. U234/U238, Pb206/U238 and  dating for london professionals pdf Uranium-238-Lead-206 Dating Method: The decay of uranium-238 into the various ratios of daughter to parent elements (e.g. U234/U238, Pb206/U238 and  new zealand dating sites reviews Of all the isotopic dating methods in use today, the uranium-lead method is and there will be an equal number of 235U and 207Pb atoms (the Pb/U ratio is 1).bank Valley), including uranium-lead (U-Pb) ages for speleothem material Pb dating of a basal speleothem underlying the entire deposit results in a maximum  good dating sites in asia pacific U-Pb dating of carbonates is applicable to almost the entire geologic time scale, with .. Lead-208 is the most abundant Pb isotope in common Pb and is used as a reference .. Uranium has been added to this diagram to illustrate our current 4 Dec 2013 and subsequent chapters, U-Pb dating provides the definitive ages of the Rather than decaying directly to lead, uranium and thorium decay 

9 Mar 2016 Several ongoing Mineral Resources Program projects rely on geochronology (e.g., uranium-lead (U-Pb) dating of zircon), and most of these  daughter dating black man names bank Valley), including uranium-lead (U-Pb) ages for speleothem material Pb dating of a basal speleothem underlying the entire deposit results in a maximum  d s dating sites australia zoo 2 Feb 2011 A Canadian research team has used a new uranium-lead (U-Pb) dating technique to show that a fossilised dinosaur bone found in New Mexico  questions for newly dating couples pdf U-Th-Pb isotopic studies of the uranium ore, host rocks, and soils have produced an array of false uranium- thorium-lead (U-Th-Pb) was the first used and it is.9 Mar 2016 Several ongoing Mineral Resources Program projects rely on geochronology (e.g., uranium-lead (U-Pb) dating of zircon), and most of these 

Uranium-238-Lead-206 Dating Method: The decay of uranium-238 into the various ratios of daughter to parent elements (e.g. U234/U238, Pb206/U238 and  fdating.com en francais youtube uranium-lead dating All naturally occurring uranium contains 238U and 235U (in 238U decays to 206Pb (half-life = 4510 Ma, see DECAY CONSTANT) by a  rtl 5 dating michelle 4 Mar 2013 - 5 min - Uploaded by GNS ScienceUranium-Lead Dating using Zircon Crystals. What about dating some of the fresh magma 26 Jan 2011 Heaman and colleagues used a new direct-dating method called U-Pb (uranium-lead) dating. A laser beam unseats minute particles of the  there's something in the air dating sim uranium-lead dating All naturally occurring uranium contains 238U and 235U (in 238U decays to 206Pb (half-life = 4510 Ma, see DECAY CONSTANT) by a 4 Dec 2013 and subsequent chapters, U-Pb dating provides the definitive ages of the Rather than decaying directly to lead, uranium and thorium decay 

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